Thus, this paper starts with a literature review and description of methodology, which outlines how our approach must be somewhat exploratory, given the topic is previously under-studied, but also explaining how we approach generating concrete data.After explaining the methodology, we present our more descriptive results about socio-demographics, about the preconditions for mode uses such as driving licence and vehicle ownership, and about similarities and differences in transport mode use for immigrants and non-immigrants.Generally speaking, to be able to travel independently and self-determinedly improves personal quality of life and it increases the opportunities for participation and integration in the society.
We used logistic regression models to identify, in addition to gender and immigration status, factors that influenced the regular use of car (as driver), public transport, and bicycle.Here, the (former) industrialised areas and large towns are where most immigrants are located (see Fig. ficktreffen Oberhausen In 2014, 20.3% of the German population were immigrants and their offspring (first and second generation).Public transport is generally available in German cities, but public transport users need to cope with sometimes complicated timetables or tariff system and for immigrants there might be a particular barrier, that is language.Our study follows the German definition, first introduced during a national representative population survey in 2005, and defines the population group with an immigration background as a group including all persons who have immigrated into the territory of today’s Federal Republic of Germany after 1949.
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We compared the travel behaviour of immigrants and their direct offspring to that of Germans without an immigration background.Compared to non-immigrants, immigrants own fewer cars or bicycles per household, and they were also less likely to be able to ride a bicycle or to drive a car and to have access to these modes of transport.When they are granted a permission to stay, they need to get around in order for going to work, shopping for groceries, or taking part in education and in social life. Depending on the local infrastructure and their individual possibilities and mobility options, they therefore need to walk, to use public transport, a private car or a bicycle to get around.Following the Fall of the Wall, the largest immigrant group consisted of the post-war repatriates from the former Soviet Union and from Eastern European states.
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Nowadays, immigrant numbers are at all-time high, including both, highly-skilled and non-skilled immigrants from Eastern and Southern European-Union countries, especially from Poland (BAMF ).
Irrespective of the recent refugees, forecasts already predict that the immigrant share in Germany’s population will further increase, both due to further immigration and due to socio-demographic changes.
As every other person, immigrants need to travel in their everyday life in order to fulfil their basic needs.
Moreover, the everyday travel behaviour of immigrants seems to change over the course of time.
Recent immigrants show greater differences in this respect in comparison to the native-born population.